As previously demonstrated by Bill Rankin and Eric Fischer, dot density maps can be used to help explore census variables without boundaries. These dot dentistry maps visualize multivariate demographic data, allowing for an improve understanding of the spatial distribution and underlying population characteristics of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The maps explore three diverse themes with the same result: household income, primary mode of transportation to work, and race and ethnicity.
The identification of spatial trends in the data is not limited by restrictions imposed by mapping homogenous groups using distinct boundaries. Rather, the maps facilitate the identification of areas with clustering, diversity and isolation.